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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



idlest |icnt statural pstovn, 



Mkxascomml & fihotaqraphic (Socieip 



WITH 



^»AL Hi*. 



REPORTS OF THE COUNCIL AND AUDITORS 



FOR 



. . 1902-1 903 



AND 



RULES & LIST OF MEMBERS. 



i 



bonbon : 

K. G. BERRYMAN & SONS, STEAM PRINTERS, 
Blackheath Road, S.E. 



19 3 



2 



LIST OF OFFICERS 

OF THE 

Meet licnt Natural Distort $luxQQta$Xi%l ani) 
photographic Societp, 

Elected at the Annual Meeting, February 26t/i, 1902. 
FOR THE SEASON 19021903. 



JJresibeivt. 

George Draper, F.R.G.S. 

iSice-flresibente. 

H. F. BlLLINGHURST, F.S.S. 

T, O. Donaldson, M. Inst. C.E. 
Walter Kidd, M.D., F.Z.S. 
R. McLachlan, F.R.S. 

Jijoii. treasurer. 
Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

3) on. ^emtaries. 
Stanley Edwards, F.R.G.S., F.E.S. 

W. B. BlLLINGHURST, B.A. 



Council. 



H. J. Adams, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

A. Deed. 

W. H. Gover. 

H. Hainworth, F.R.H.S. 

Morgan May. 

J. M. Stone, M.A. 

F. T. Tayler, M.B., B.A. 



J C. Weare. 
A. D. Webster, F.R.S. E. 
W. Webster, F.C.S. 
T. B. Wire. 

H. F. Witherby, F.Z.S. 

M.B.O.U. 
P. T. Wrigley, M.A. 



3 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



OF THE 



Mcst Pent Jktaral |)istorj) t Microscopical ani) 
Photographic Society, 



Elected at the Annual Meeting, February 25tk, 1903. 



FOR THE SEASON 1903-1904. 



President. 

George Draper, F.R.G.S. 

l)ke-f)resilients. 
H. T. Adams, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

H. F. BlLLINGHURST, F.S.S. 

T. O. Donaldson, M. Inst. C.E. 
Walter Kidd, M.D., F.Z.S. 

Hjmt. treasurer. 
Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

gjon. .Secretaries. 

H. Hainworth, F.R.H.S. 
Lewis B. Draper. 



(Ileum ci I. 



W. B. BlLLINGHURST, B.A. 

A. Deed. 

Stanley Edwards, F.R.G.S., 

F.C.S. 
W. H. Gover. 
R. N. Kiddle, L.D.S. 
Morgan May. 
R. McLachlan, F.R.S. 



J. M. Stone, M.A. 

J. C. Weare. 

W. Webster, F.C.S. 



T. B. Wire. 



H. F. Witherby, F.Z.S. , 

M.B.O.U. 
P. T. Wrigley, M.A 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 



For the Session 1902=1903. 



N presenting the Report of the West Kent Natural 
History Society, the Council expresses its satisfaction 
and acknowledgments to the Members for the contri- 
bution during the Session of the excellent papers 
submitted for discussion, and for the exhibits, which have 
been both varied and interesting. 

The Society, from its inception, has been proved to be 
of a distinct usefulness in this part of the county, and with 
the introduction of new members and regular attendances 
at the Meetings, the President and Council consider that the 
best interests of the Society will be assured. 

The Council and Members of the Society will have read 
with regret the announcement of the death, on the 7th 
instant, of Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., &c. He 
was a Member of this Society from its commencement, 
President in the year 1868, and was elected an Honor- 
ary Member in the Session 1882-3. 

In his public capacity he held the position, for 34 years, 
of Superintendent of the Magnetic and Meteorological Depart- 
ment at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. His death 
removes an earnest and indefatigable worker for the advance- 
ment of Meteorology. He was the founder of the Royal 
Meteorological Society, he was for some time President of 
the Microscopical Society and the Photographic Society. 
He was, in 1898, presented with an address which, referring 
to his life work, spoke of him as having advanced the inter- 
ests of Science in two directions, in the knowledge of the 
Atmosphere round the earth, and in the study of Meteorology. 

Mr. Stanley Edwards having expressed his wish to retire 
from the position of Principal Secretary, the Members of the 
Council, in accepting his resignation, desire to place on 



5 



record their sense of the excellent work he has accomplished, 
and express the hope that as a Member of the Council to 
which he is elected, he may still render good service in the 
interests of the Society. 

The President and Council express their regret that Mr. 
\V. B. Billinghurst, B.A., also has been compelled, by the 
pressure of his professional duties, to resign his position of 
Joint Secretary to the Society, and they express their thanks 
to him for the useful services he has rendered to the Society. 

At the Ordinary Meetings of the Society during the year, 
the following papers were read, and exhibits placed on the 
table, viz. : — 

March, 1902. — Mr. A. I). Webster read a paper on the 
" History of Greenwich Park," lantern slide illustrations 
being given by Mr. W. J. Potter. It was decided on this 
occasion to invite ladies to the Meeting, which was very well 
attended. 

April, 1902. — A paper was read by Mr. A. S. Gover, on 
the " Roman Wall." Mr. W. H. Gover supplied lantern 
illustrations. Mr. Stanley Edwards exhibited specimens of 
the Genus Papilio from South America. 

May, 1902. — Mr. T. O. Donaldson gave some notes on 
"The Arauja Alba as a Moth Trap." The President 
contributed an account of the Caves and Subterranean 
Passages at Chislehurst. 

October, 1902. — Exhibits of animals and iron stones 
collected at a depth of 2,600 fathoms in the Bay of Biscay, 
were made by the President, while Mr. T. O. Donaldson 
showed photographs taken during the summer, and Mr. 
Edwards a collection of Beetles from British North Borneo. 

November, 1902. — Mr. A. D. Webster read a >aper on 
" The Extermination of British Plants," and Mr. Edwards 
gave an exhibit of " Exotic Nymphalidse." 

December, 1902. — Dr. Walter Kidd read a paper on 
"The Hair of Animals viewed as a Stream," and Mr. 
Edwards exhibited specimens of " Exotic Pieridse." 

January, 1903. — Mr. Herbert Jones contributed some 
notes on " One of the Caverns discovered under Blackheath 



6 



in recent years " ; and on the supposed origin of the name of 
" Maze Hill " ; and showed specimens of Sarsen, Quartz, and 
Blue Stone from Stonehenge. 

The Ladies' Field Meeting took place on Monday, June 
9th, when Farnborough, Down and Keston were visited. At 
Farnborough, by kind permission of Lord Avebury, a visit 
was made to High Elms, while at Down several of the 
members were shown over Mr. Darwin's house. Tea was 
served at Down, and the return journey was made through 
Keston and Bromley. The meeting was very well attended, 
thirty-nine members and friends being present. 

On Saturday, July 26th, the Annual Dinner was held at 
the " Old Falcon " Hotel, Gravesend. 

Greenwich Park was selected for the Cryptogamic Field 
Meeting, which was held on Saturday, October 11th. Forty- 
two species were collected, a list of which will be found in 
the Transactions. The members were afterwards enter- 
tained at tea by Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Webster. 



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8 



ADDRESS 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

WEST KENT NATURAL HISTORY 
MICROSCOPICAL and PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 

by 

The President, GEORGE DRAPER, Esq., F.R.G.S., 

On February 25th, 1903. 



Gentlemen, 

In a historical survey of the progress achieved in the 
19th Century— in determining its most conspicuous feature — 
we are accustomed to describe the Victorian era as the iron 
age or the epoch of steam, the development of which has 
tended immeasurably to the prosperity of the Country and 
the amelioration of the condition of the people. The later 
years of the century are remarkable for the inception and 
continuing of the science of electricity. The combination of 
the two, as sister sciences, establishing a record ever dis- 
tinguishing our generation as a century of applied science, 
the successful controlling and leading captive of the laws of 
nature in its physical aspect, for the benefit of her children ; 
the solving and utilising of problems which were aforetime 
regarded with awe as dread mysteries. 

The profound secrets of nature which the Astrologers of 
the middle-ages sought to evolve by sorceries, incantations 
and charms — by alchemy and philtres— by ceaseless experi- 
ments for the discovery of the golden era (if aptly they 
might find it) are disclosed in the most part to us in these 
later years. The suggestions of great discoveries, scientists 
in modern times have availed of and perfected, were by the 
recluse and student of astrology ignored as of no account in 
their search for the one alloy which should assure them 
undying fame. 



9 



They struggled and endured persecution and hardship, 
in efforts which were vain, to wrest from nature if only an 
indication whether their experiments were in the right 
direction. 

But nature had to them no book of laws, no speech or 
language these sages could interpret or decipher. It has 
been left for her devotees in the past century to discover the 
key of the wonderful book of laws which is now not a sealed 
volume of mysteries, but a treatise on whose pages are 
inscribed the fundamental truths which should guide the 
student in his earnest researches and workings, and to adapt 
and reduce to practical knowledge the propositions which 
nature in her realm submits to the seeker after her hidden 
treasures. By the wrong application of her methods and 
meanings the ancient scribe has written down the natural 
laws of the universe inscrutable and past finding out. 

Thales, the philosopher of Miletus, discovered the pro- 
perty of Amber in attracting to itself light particles by 
friction. He described the inherent power as the soul or 
essence which, quickened by the friction, goes forth and 
attracts to itself the light bodies lying around. Here is the 
germ of electricity, but his knowledge of nature's laws was 
too elementary to enable him to avail of this first principle, 
and follow out the leading thus given him. 

The inspiration that dawned on his mind found no 
response, no eager desire to follow the train of thought set in 
motion by the strange phenomena he had discovered, and even 
he only regarded it as a phenomenon peculiar to the Amber 
alone. He could impart no knowledge to his disciples 
concerning the interesting property possessed by the Amber, 
nor were those who followed him equal to the task of 
continuing or expanding the studies and experiments of the 
master. 

Archimedes, whose insight into nature's ways and 
workings, contributed material knowledge to the schools of 
learning by his theories of mechanics and hydrostatics. 

The genius these masters possessed of interpreting, 
casually, natural laws, was not transferable to their followers. 
Demonstrations, and the solving of problems being, in the 
ancient academies, without scientific knowledge, more 



10 



conjectural than positive, and it is not surprising that those 
who taught found little aptness in the pupil to extend the 
knowledge or add to the history of natural phenomena. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the inspira- 
tion which enlightened these old-world philosophers paled 
with ineffectual fires in the minds of those who sat at the 
feet of the Master, till nothing remained to them but the 
meagre formulae of the theories so expounded. 

Through all the years intervening, the scholar has 
missed the application of the lessons nature would impart. 
Her voice called in vain tor an interpreter, for one who 
could understand the message of the centuries ; — centuries of 
untold misery, of dire penalties and woe to the nations of 
the world, — from man's inability to profit by the sad experi- 
ences of suffering, to adapt the remedial measures nature 
sought to impart. 

Until the dawn of the past century, there had not 
arisen one with the genius to translate the signs and 
influences that abounded for bettering the condition of the 
people, and for the culture and advancement of the nations. 

The later history of natural science is eloquent on the 
triumphs its students have accomplished in the betterment 
of the world. 

It is a record of the tireless search and earnest seeking 
after the knowledge that brings understanding of the ways 
of life, and the better equipment of man to withstand the 
foes which wage constant war in his natural existence. 

The worthy thinkers and workers of the 2nd and 8rd 
centuries B.C., could only grasp at the solution of the 
problems of life and being in and around them. Sentient 
existence was to their unaided reason, as the wind which 
carries the seed or spray where it listeth ; but the Greek and 
Egyptian philosophers did hazard conjectures of the govern- 
ment of the world, touched with the daring of enthusiasm 
on the origin of things material in nature, taught in their 
own particular schools the position of the earth in the solar 
system, the Pythagorean theory of the Universe, and the 
teaching of Aristarkus remaining the accepted theory up to 
the dark ages, when, after the years of that dismal night 
had passed away, Copernicus confirmed and elaborated the 
ideas of the Phoenician and Samoan philosophers. 



1 1 



The light of genius which inspired the old philosophers 
was suffered during the Roman epoch of war and conquest, 
and the Macedonian King's ambitious career, to flicker down to 
a feeble ray, until it was renewed in the 15th century of our 
time by the pure oil of reason, that waxed strong and 
strenuous in the devotion of the students of nature who 
interpreted and surpassed the masters of philosophy in the 
earlier days. The flash of light burned low again till the 
close of the 18th century, when it burst into an unextinguish- 
able flame which has lighted the pathway of genius, giving 
us, in its rekindling, the guiding ray to all the knowledge we 
possess of nature's ways and works. 

We may safely contend that inventions, in the civiliza- 
tion, the well-being and progress of the world, and the 
improvements in the intercommunications of nations, have 
been the outcome of the zeal for the communion with, and 
better understanding of nature in her own domain. 

In estimating the work of the great men of the past 
century in bringing into practical form their realization of 
the forces of nature, the supreme honour is theirs, of noble 
accomplishments for the benefit of the race, self-sacrificing, 
with no ulterior thought of personal aggrandisement. 

Natural history can, however, only record one here and 
there in a generation, of the great ones of the world, who 
have spent their lives in elucidating the laws of nature. 

The subject of natural science being of such vital 
importance, and affecting as it does the general interests and 
welfare of civilized life, it is essential that studies with some 
pretentions to future usefulness, should be introduced into 
schools and colleges of the country, that the curriculum of 
national education should include the systematic, graduated 
instruction in nature studies. 

I shall be reminded that scholastic training does include 
the study and use of the globes, that botany is taught in our 
high schools, that aspirants for fame can be coached in the 
study of astronomy, geology, meteorology, and possibly 
zoology ; that with the higher mathematics the scholar mav 
pass through a course of instruction in animal and plant life 
from the coloured book descriptions illustrated by the best 
masters. 



12 



But formal lessons of this kind are not far removed from 
playing with science ; and until recently there was no 
attempt at imparting real knowledge in a natural way, in 
tracing out nature's footsteps by the rocks and hills; in 
seeking her pathway by the vales and rills. 

There should be education and training of the observing 
eye, the keen insight that induced Stephenson to speculate 
and demonstrate on the eventualities of things by studying 
the effect of compressed steam, or Franklyn's experiments 
which resulted in identification of lightning and electricity. 

In many youthful minds, however, there will always be 
the feeling that outdoor study excursions will bear the 
impress of lessons and become formal and tedious. 

"You may fondly imagine that you sweeten the pill, 
But the fact that it's lessons will cling to it still." 

For the higher education of this class of abnormal scholar 
I am not appealing, but on behalf of the student who seeks 
to expand the knowledge that book learning can give, who 
has a mind intent on transcribing the books to be found by 
the running brooks, listening to the sermons in stones, and 
evolving good from everything. 

I would have one with such aspirations study the sea 
depths, not merely stand on the shore and watch the tide 
lapping his feet, feeling himself as a mere pebble on the 
shingle before the vast ocean of life, but let him venture out 
with his boat, cast out a trailing-line with a small dredge 
bag and hempen tassels beneath > then come ashore and turn 
out his "find." 

He will discover a wealth of interesting objects he could 
not have dreamt of, which, with the aid of the microscope, 
will instruct and pay him better than he could realize in the 
use of any rod and line fishing expedition he may undertake. 
But even with the baited line, if he fears to venture out in 
the deep, he may have an object lesson in studying the 
beautiful iridescence.on the struggling fish he lands. 

As his studies advance he will have arrived only at the 
threshold of nature's design in creation, and will find that 
there is still a sea of knowledge to compass. 



13 



To the sea naturalist will appear the vast differ- 
ences that exist between the fund of knowledge we now 
possess, and the theories and speculative teachings in ancient 
records. The voice of the deep will have no uncertain 
sound to him. Indeed this may be said not only of the 
philosophers who taught in ages remote from our time, but 
of those modern teachers up to the time of Darwin, and 
others of nature's explorers. 

Darwin was one of the first to investigate systematically 
the causes and drift of currents at sea, the formation of the 
sea-bed, the nature of ocean life, with the physical conditions 
observable from coast to sea depths. After his demon- 
strations of the importance of these sounding operations a 
series of expeditions for the mapping out of the ocean floor 
were undertaken — and scientific research enterprises are 
now at work in every sea. The feverish eagerness that 
characterised the Elizabethan and earlier navigation projects 
had only one end and aim. They were undertaken almost 
solely with the view of discovering new territory, the acquir- 
ing of fresh dominions, and what is now described as 
" protecting " the new country on which the flag of the 
dominant state had been planted from a supposed or 
imaginary enemy who might swoop down on the devoted 
island. 

In speaking of the ancient theories of the sea and 
nature's designs, we recall the conclusions of the school of 
Aristotle, that there would come a time within a calculable 
distance, when the waters of the sea would become absorbed, 
that by continuous evaporation, dry land would appear in the 
deeps where ocean waters flowed. 

Nature's compensating balance was not thought of, nor 
could it be known to his mental vision that the vaporised 
sea-borne wave is condensed and falls again on the land, 
that the clouds of vapours rising from the sea distils 
over the continents, filling up the pools, rushing down from 
mountain slopes, through plains and fertile valley, and, enlarg- 
ing and deepening the rivers to rejoin the sea whence they 
came, carrying in a constant succession a flow seaward, ol 
land deposits, of saline ingredients and other substances. 



14 



The student may find an interest in calculating the 
volumes of water from the larger rivers of the earth carrying 
an ever constant supply of fresh water into the depths for the 
balancing of the vaporised deficiencies. 

The vast volumes of water pouring daily into the ocean 
may be illustrated by the three largest rivers — the Amazon 
(the largest), the Congo, and the Mississippi. 

The Congo in its course of 2,500 miles accumulating a 
mass of water equal to 2,500,000 cubic feet per second, being 
ten miles wide at its mouth. The Amazon in its journey of 
4,000 miles widens out as it meets the sea, to 200 miles. 
The impetus of the flow from each river can be traced by the 
discoloration of the ocean as far out as from two to three 
hundred miles. 

Our own rivers, the Thames (or Broad Isis), and the 
Severn, with their length of 210 to 250 miles, are modest 
streams in comparison with the American and African giants. 
The Mississippi, with its drainage of 982,000 square miles, 
pours into the Gulf of Mexico, water, that if collected to- 
gether, would make a sea of a mile depth, with a superficial 
area of 620 square miles. This enormous flow is collected 
from the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, and the 
Mountains that skirt the Pacific Coast. 

These all with countless other rivers, surface and sub- 
terranean, swell the masses of fresh water swallowed up by 
the ocean waters which cover 143 millions of square miles. 
The Pacific, 56 millions (40 per cent.) ; Atlantic, 30 millions 
(20 per cent). 

At the recent British Association Meeting, it was stated 
that in the creation, the waters were above the earth, form- 
ing a canopy of cloud, which in the lapse of time divided, 
one portion falling on the cooling globe, filling up the sub- 
sidences, plains, and valleys which now form the abysmal 
depths of the sea, the waters of the earth being separated 
from the waters above the earth, " the firmament dividing 
the waters which were under from the waters which were 
above the firmament, and the dry land became the Earth, 
and the gathering together of the waters the Seas/' 



15 



In the ocean explorations undertaken in the early 
Victorian Era, the main object was to determine the sound- 
ings round the British Coast-line. The result confirming 
the theory that, at an age, geologically remote, there was 
dry land connection between the west coast of this country, 
Brittany on the coast of France, Denmark and Norway ; 
while Scotland and the North of Ireland had no sea-line 
between them. The dry land from the coast of Cornwall 
extending out to a hundred miles. 

Expeditions were afterwards fitted out with the object of 
plumbing greater depths, and ascertaining the nature of sea 
life, if discoverable. To the scientists in charge of these 
operations we are indebted for the display of facts relating 
to the wonder world of life, in depths from 1,000 fathoms to 
over 6,000, or about 6 miles of water. Even in this abyss of 
darkness, it was found that there is moving existence and 
motion of the water. 

The more the student examines nature's ways and 
workings, the more will he find how lavish she is in the gifts 
of beauty that come from her hand, in the exquisite tracery 
on a specimen of coral or flora, in the delicate minute shell 
formation which are singly invisible to the unaided eye. 
Think of the marvels of ingenuity in the formation and 
growth of these animalculse, the foraminifera, the 
polycystina shells, the diatoms, sponge spikeules, and other 
infusoria, each having an individual existence, living its 
little day, and completing its life. All this mass of minute 
creation falling from depths of several hundreds of fathoms 
to the abysmal ocean bed in countless myriads of showers, 
from countless thousands of years. You cannot trail the 
dredging sack to 2,000 fathoms without finding the globi- 
gerinous ooze full of these tiny organisms, morsels which are 
cast forth like dust on the land, or the sand of the sea in 
multitude, filling every crevice of the deep with their 
remains. 

Owing to the constant circulation in the ocean, the gases 
of the atmosphere which are everywhere absorbed on the 
surface, are carried down to the greatest depths, and thus 
these living organisms flourish through the whole extent of 
ocean. Water is but lightly compressible, and almost any 
substance that will fall to the bottom of a cup will be carried 
down to the greatest depths, and although these organisms 



16 



are subjected in the deep waters to a pressure of from 4 to 5 
tons on the square inch, there is no unequal pressure on any 
part, the pressure being equally apportioned through the 
tissues of the living structure. 

The student who imagines that the rigid geometrical 
problems he wearies his brain to solve are of man's inven- 
tion — original problems of figures formed on a plane, straight 
lines, curves and cones — the painter who ascribes to the 
masters and draughtsmen of the old schools, the charming 
line drawings he finds so difficult to reproduce — will discover 
in nature's handicraft the original line artist. 

To nature's school must the student go to learn the 
"undulatory theory of light " and " finite differences," to 
feel the influence of the hand that outlines the exquisite 
curves and colouring of a butterfly's wing, the iridescence 
on the wings of the flying fish as it rises ahead of the 
advancing ship, to get the inwardness of geometrical lines 
from the fish that comes readily to the bait, or from the 
cone, harp, nautilus, or spiral shell in the museums. 

From the corals too, the master builders in the sea 
depths of gorgeous palaces, cloud-capped minarets seemingly 
in the sunlight as you approach them, white, glistening, 
petrified forests. Silence is profound on some of these 
atolls, with no charm of earliest bird, or the voice of man, 
no sign of herb, fruit or flower, on these, the beginnings of 
the islands of the ocean. 

I have not time here to give a description of the larger 
coral formations which come under the name of atolls and 
barrier reefs, it would require a paper devoted to the subject. 
Many theories have been advanced since the early days of 
the 19th Century, to explain the nature of these atoll 
growths, which rise from the water in cup formation, the 
accumulations extending from the size of the specimens we 
see in museums, to that of islets and inhabited islands in the 
Pacific and warm seas. The shape of the atoll retains the 
hollowed ring appearance and characteristic. There are 
coral islands of this nature covering a length of 90 miles 
and 10 miles broad, the breadth of the annular reef being 
quite a quarter of a mile. 

When the surface of the water has been reached the 
polyps cease to grow. The work of the tiny builder is 
complete. 



17 



Nature's work in preparing the island for the residence 
of man is, however, not discontinued, for as the Coral colony 
stays its labours, other agencies commence operations. 

The ceaseless wash of the sea carries to this super- 
structure of animal mass, deposits from other lands which 
gradually bank up over the edge of the coral foundation. 
The debris becoming solidified by the heat of the sun cracks 
and distributes over the island. The birds of the air next 
perform their part in bringing seeds to the desolate island, 
plants make their appearance, and from the decaying leaves 
a surface soil is produced. So the work of adaptation for 
higher requirements proceeds. 

I should like, in conclusion, to say a word about this 
nature study in view of the new Education Act, to suggest 
that whatever be its merits it will be deficient in real worth 
if it be a hindrance to the study of natural history ; it: should 
be rather a help, for this is a study that should be the basis 
of all true education. 

We are glad to have the assurance, which is fully 
appreciated, that in certain schools and colleges interest in 
the open-air study of Physiology has been aroused and is 
well sustained. Excursions are made periodically, with the 
view of instilling into the minds of the young the knowledge 
which can best be acquired by outdoor studies. The natural 
history museums ought also to be visited regularly by the 
schools, to enable the scholar to become acquainted with the 
fauna and flora of sea and land. 

The Ruskin schools, too, afford ample proof of the value 
of this reformation in the educational system which we 
advocate. 

There are agencies at work to make this training 
general, in all our academies of learning, to aid our rising 
generation in acquiring a clearer conception of nature's laws 
and the better understanding of this attractive science. 



18 



On the 26th MARCH, 1902, 
Mr. A. D. WEBSTER, F.R.S.E., 

GAVE A 

Lecture to the Members and their Friends 

on 

"THE HISTORY OF GREENWICH PARK." 



The Lecture was copiously illustrated by lantern slides, 
and was largely attended, and very well received. Those 
interested in Greenwich Park will find a full account of it in 
Mr. A. D. Webster's work on " Greenwich Park, its History 
and Associations," recently published by Mr. Henry 
Richardson, of Greenwich. 



L9 



AT A MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 

HELD ON 

WEDNESDAY, the 23rd APRIL, 1902, 
Mr. A. S. GOVER 
Gave an Exhibition of Lantern Slides from Photo- 
graphs TAKEN BY HIMSELF OF THE ROMAN WALL IN 

the North of England and its neighbourhood. 



In the course of his remarks, Mr. Gover said that the 
wall stretching from Wallsend on the Tyne, to the Solway 
Firth, crosses the mountain limestone in Northumberland, 
and in Cumberland the new red sandstone, with its charming 
glens. Near Chester the course of the wall passes a large 
dyke of basalt. When complete, the barrier, about 72 miles 
in length, appears to have consisted of — a ditch to the north, 
a flat space called the berme, then the wall of MASONRY 
MURUS, and a central flat space, along which ran a wide 
military road ; to the south of this was a large earthen 
vallum, a berme, a ditch, and two smaller valla. The erection 
of the stone wall itself is attributed to Hadrian, and though 
now nowhere more than about 6 feet high, is stated by the 
Ven. Bede, a.d. 700, to have been then 12 feet high by 8 feet 
thick. A parapet on this may have brought up the height to 
16 feet. At distances of about 300 feet apart are turrets in 
the wall, while at each Roman mile there is a small fortified 
post called a mile castle, and at spaces of 4 to 5 miles apart 
regular fortified camps for the purpose of containing garrisons 
in support of the troops guarding the wall between. 

Mr. Gover showed views of Birdoswald identified as 
AMBOGLANNA, Housteads BORCOVICUS, and Great 
Chesters or AESICA, probably the three best preserved of 
these camps ; also views of the wall in the garden of the 
Vicarage at Gillsland, where it remains several courses high. 
Here is one of several inscribed stones, indicating the cohort 
and century of the soldiers who built that particular section 
of the work. 

He also mentioned the cave found outside the Camp at 
Housteads, dedicated to the worship of the god Mithras, 
several sculptured stones from which are now in the museum 
in the Keep of the Castle at Newcastle-on-Tyne, including 
one of Mithras arising from an egg. 



20 



On the 28th MAY, 1902, 
Mr. T. O. DONALDSON, M. Inst. C.E., 

Exhibited a very fine seed - pod of the " Arauja 
Alba," from San Remo, an Asclepiadaceous 
plant, the flowers of which attract and capti- 
vate the large moths which visit them. 



21 



AT A MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 

HELD ON 

WEDNESDAY, 26th NOVEMBER, 1902, 
Mr. A. D. WEBSTER, F.R.S.E., 

READ A PAPER ON 

"THE EXTERMINATION OF BRITISH PLANTS, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLACKHEATH 
AND GREENWICH. ' 



For many years past I have, as far as possible, kept a 
record of such plants as, from their extreme rarity, are likely 
to become lost to our flora, and sorry am I to say that the 
list continues to lengthen. 

For such examples we do not require to go far from 
home, as, on Blackheath, one of the healthiest colonies of the 
rare Autumn Squill (S cilia autumnalis), which in Britain is 
confined to a few of the Southern English Counties, has 
almost, if not entirely, disappeared from the Heath. 

Whether the extremely rare Marsh Sow Thistle (Sonchus 
palustris) is now to be found on the Plumstead Marshes, 
the Deptford Pink (Dianthus armeria) in Charlton Wood, the 
wild Tulip (Tulipa sylvestris) at Chislehurst, or the Spring 
Potentill (Potentilla verna) at Wickham, is not known ; most 
likely not, for repeated searches have been unsuccessful, and 
enquiries have elicited no satisfactory information. 

The progress of drainage is fast killing out the Summer 
Snowflake (leucojum cestivum) on the Thames bank at Wool- 
wich, while the extremely rare Quaking-grass (Briza minor), 
has probably become extinct in the field at Burnt x\sh Lane, 
where it survived as late as 1858. Fifty years ago, Isatis 



22 



tinctoria grew not far from Blackheath, but it is now quite 
extinct, as is Primula farinosa, at Eltham, and the Summer 
Spiranth (Spiranthes czstivalis), in Camden Park, Chislehurst. 

How local the little Squill (above referred to) is, may be 
inferred from the fact that it has only been found in four, out 
of the eighteen botanical provinces into which the British 
Isles have been sub-divided. 

In connection with these plants it may be worthy of 
mention that Chislehurst can boast of being one of the very 
few native stations where the wild Tulip has produced 
flowers, while a discussion took place lately as to whether 
the Plumstead Thistle, to which we have referred, was not 
extinct as a British plant — fortunately, it has been found in 
the Cambridge fens. 

The Deptford Pink, you will be glad to know, has 
become quite naturalised in Greenwich Park. 

Many other native plants, particularly Orchids, the 
Lloydia, or Mountain Tulip, the bog Sandwort, Alpine 
Lychnis, and Coralroot, are fast becoming exterminated. 



23 



AT A MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 

HELD ON 

WEDNESDAY, 17th DECEMBER, 1902, 
DOCTOR WALTER KIDD 

READ A PAPER ON 

"THE HAIR OF ANIMALS VIEWED AS A 
STREAM." 



The direction taken by the hair of animals was 
considered, and the facts interpreted by the light of the con- 
ception of the hair as a stream. 

Taking the doctrine of descent with the modification as 
a basis, the various divergencies from a primitive type of 
hair-slope require mechanical and natural explanations. 
The term " Hair-stream 5 ' is accepted in anatomical descrip- 
tions, and the idea of a slowly-moving stream more nearly 
represents the facts of the case than any other. 

There would seem to be only two natural explanations 
of the facts of the direction of hair. First, that these are 
governed by natural selection, and that they are therefore 
adaptive modifications. Secondly, that they are modifications 
produced by the habits or environments, or both, of the 
animals in question. Certain of the facts were shown to be 
under the province of natural selection, but most of the 
modifications were held to be entirely removed from any 
such influence, and no explanation is forthcoming except the 
Lamarckian view of acquired characters. If this be so, 
Weismann's theory of heredity breaks down. Certain main 
regions of departure from a primitive type of hair-slope were 
dealt with, viz. : — Nasal and Frontal regions of the head, 
Cervical, Spinal, Axillary, Inguinal, Pectoral and Gluteal 



regions. Three classes of phenomena considered were, 1st : 
whorls, and associated with them, featherings and crests ; 
2nd: reversed areas of hair; 3rd: tufts, as on the flank of 
a domestic horse. 

A whorl represents diverging, and a tuft converging 
streams of hair. Two of these three classes are best studied 
on the horse, viz., 1 and 3 ; whereas 2 is most common on 
the domestic short-haired dog. An otter was chosen as a type 
of a well-known animal with primitive hair-slope, the nearest 
approach to this form being that of a domestic cat, where 
only one small departure is found, viz., on the short broad 
snout. Here the direction of hair is from base to tip of 
snout, contrary to that of the primitive type, and this is 
shared by its more lordly relatives, the larger Felidse, e.g., 
lion, tiger, leopard, puma. Explanation of this fact in the 
Felidse was referred to by the habit of cleaning their fur by 
a downward rubbing movement of their paws, and other 
forces acting in a similar direction. The direction of the 
hair on the snout of a dog or any member of the Canidae is 
from tip to base of snout, and from the form of its pointed 
muzzle it reacts in the opposite way to that of the cat to the 
forces mentioned. 

Carnivores, as a rule, are simpler in their hair-arrange- 
ment than Ungulates, the former showing more frequently 
reversed areas of hair, such as on the lower surface of the 
forearm, but much fewer whorls, featherings and crests. 

Ungulates present more interesting points than any other 
animals, their coats being mainly short, and the habits of 
their lives more complex from the present point of view. 
Among these, Cervidce show few peculiarities beyond a nasal 
whorl and occasionally reversed areas of hair. Antelopes 
show frequently a pectoral whorl, feathering and crest, and 
reversed areas of hair. Gazelles, very few of any kind of 
peculiarities. Sheep, about as many as antelopes. Giraffes, 
among which the Okapi may be mentioned, have few modifi- 
cations, chiefly a frontal whorl, feathering and crest. 

Equidce, such as zebra, quagga and the domestic horse, 
among them, show many divergencies, but these are far more 
numerous in the horse than any other animal except man. 
Horses present ten separate peculiarities of hair-arrangement, 
of which seven are constant and three occasional. It is 



25 



remarkable to contrast from this point of view the zebra and 
horse, so closely allied in form, the former presenting almost 
no departure from a primitive type of slope, except a small 
frontal whorl, and the horse such a large number as ten. It 
is to be remembered that of all animals the domestic horse 
is far the most locomotive in its habits, being nothing more 
nor less than a living locomotive produced by man's work from 
a wild stock by the use of applied biology for the same kind 
of purpose, and by analogous methods as a locomotive 
machine. The horse thus is nothing if not locomotive, not 
only for its own needs, but mainly for those of man, who has 
produced it. Here, if anywhere, can the effects of constant 
muscular action in definite directions upon the direction of hair 
be studied, and here it is found that the effects attributed to 
that action, viz., whorls, featherings and crests, are found in 
the highest degree. 

The Simiadce were shown to present a few peculiarities 
of hair-slope, but far fewer than man, who is pre-eminent in 
this matter. 

These preliminary observations of the facts of hair- 
direction are necessary to the view that the hair of animals 
is to be studied from the point of view of a stream. 

First. — The hair of animals grows at an appreciable 
rate, not less than one inch in two months, the individual 
hairs being pushed out from the hair-follicle in the direction 
of least resistance. The stream, if it can be so called, is slow, 
but so is the stream of a glacier, which in the higher Alps 
flows at the rate of a foot a day in summer weather. 
Another stream which flows at a variable rate is lava. 

Second. — The hair of an animal resembles the stream 
of a river glacier or lava, in that it flows in the lines of least 
resistance. There is a primitive and simple course which the 
primitive hairy mammal must have possessed, something of 
this may be learned from observation of the hairy covering of 
an Ornithorhynchus. This primitive course of hair remains 
partially in all animals, but in many it is broken up and 
diverted by certain mechanical obstacles, as in a river the 
stream may be altered by a half-sunken rock. This is 
analogous to the constant underlying traction of very 
divergent muscles, which produces whorls, featherings and 
crests, in an animal's coat. Two chief obstacles, if one may 



26 



use the term, to the primitive slope of hair are (a) Under- 
lying divergent traction of frequently-used muscles ; (b) 
Friction of a surface in the course of an animal's life from 
certain habits and environments. 

The simplest illustration of the view here put forward of 
the hair-streams is that of a delta of some river where the 
central stream breaks up into numerous branches, and where 
it moves very slowly, being diverted into various channels by 
small mechanical causes. 



I 



27 



CRYPTOGAMIC FIELD MEETING, 

GREENWICH PARK, 
SATURDAY, nth OCTOBER, 1902. 



List of Fungi 

Coprinus atramentarues 

Lepiola procera 

Stropharia ceruginosce 

Hypholoma fascicularis 

Hypholoma sublateritia 

Polystictus versicolor 

Hypholoma velutina 
*Hygrophorus calyptrceformis 
*Russula cutefracta che 

Russula furcata 

Psalliota arvensis 

Russula heterophylla 

Collybra radicata 

Psilocybe spadicea 

Trichoderma viride 

Collybia velutipes 

Coprinus micaceus 

Clitocybe laccata 

Collybia dryophila 

Clavaria muscoides 

Cortinarius elatior 

October 13th, 1902. 



collected : — 

Polyphorus giganteus 
Marasmius cohcereus 
Collybia tuba 
Psalliota campestris 
Fistulina hepatica 
*Entoloma repanda 
Marasmius oreades 
Tricholoma humilis 
Clitocybe fumosus 
Marasmius peronaetus 
Cylaria hypoxylon 
Isilocybe semilanceatus 
Galera tener 
Mycena amicta 
Mycena pelliculosa 
Inocybe trechispora 
Mycena flavoalba 
Hygrophorus niveus 
Naucoria temulenta 
Clavaria incequalis 
Nolanea pascua 

M. C. Cooke. 



Those marked (*) have been scarce of late years. 



ROLES 



1. — The Society shall be called the West Kent Natural History, 
Microscopical and Photographic Society, and have for its 
objects the promotion of the study of Natural History, Microscopical 
Research, and Photography. 

2. — The Society shall consist of members who shall pay an annual 
subscription of 10s. 6d., and of honorary members. The annual 
subscription may, however, be commuted into a Life Subscription by 
the payment of £5 5s. in one sum. All subscriptions shall be due on 
1st January in each year. 

3. — The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Council, con- 
sisting of a President, four Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, 
and 13 Members, who shall be elected from the general body of 
ordinary members. 

4. — The President and other officers and members of Council shall be 
annually elected by ballot. The Council shall prepare a list of such 
persons as they think fit to be so elected, which shall be laid before the 
general meeting, and any member shall be at liberty to strike out all or 
any of the names proposed by the Council, and substitute any other 
name or names he may think proper. The President and Vice- 
Presidents shall not hold office longer than two consecutive years. 

5. — The Council shall hold their meetings on the day of the ordinary 
meetings of the Society, before the commencement of such meeting. No 
business shall be done unless five members be present. 

6. — Special meetings of Council shall be held at the discretion of the 
President or one of the Vice-Presidents. 

7. — The Council shall prepare, and cause to be read at the annual 
meeting, a report on the affairs of the Society for the preceding year. 

8. — Two Auditors shall be elected by show of hands at the ordinary 
meeting held in January. They shall audit the Treasurer's accounts, 
and produce their report at the annual meeting. 



29 



9. — Every candidate for admission into the Society must be proposed 
and seconded at one meeting and balloted for at the next ; and when 
two-thirds of the votes of the members present are in favour of the 
candidate he shall be duly elected. No new member shall be entitled 
to any of the privileges and advantages of the Society until he shall have 
paid his subscription for the first year of his membership. 

10. — Each member shall have the right to be present and vote at all 
general meetings, and to propose candidates for admission as members. 
He shall also have the privilege of introducing two visitors to the 
ordinary and field meetings of the Society. 

11. — No member shall have the right of voting, or be entitled to any 
of the advantages of the Society, if his subscription be six months in 
arrear. And if any member's subscription shall be in arrear for three 
years, the Council shall have power in their discretion to remove his 
name from the List of Members, and he shall thereupon cease to be a 
member, and to have any claim or interest in the Society or its property, 
but this Rule is without prejudice to any claim which the Society may 
have against such member for arrears of subscriptions. 

12. — The annual meeting shall be held on the Fourth Wednesday in 
February, for the purpose of electing officers for the year ensuing, for 
receiving the reports of the Council and Auditors, and for transacting 
any other business. 

13. — Notice of the annual meeting shall be given at the preceding, 
ordinary meeting. 

14. — The ordinary meetings shall be held on the fourth Wednesday in 
the months of October, November, January, March, April, and May, 
and the second Wednesday in December, or at such other date and at 
such place as the Council may determine. The Chair shall be taken at 
8 p.m., and the business of the meeting being disposed of, the meeting 
shall resolve into a conversazione. 

15. — Field meetings may be held during the summer months at the 
discretion of the Council ; of these, due notice in respect to time, place, 
&c, shall be sent to each member. 

16. — Special meetings shall be called by the Secretaries immediately 
upon receiving a requisition signed by not less than five members, such 
requisition to state the business to be transacted at the meeting. 



30 



Fourteen days' notice of such meeting shall be given in writing by the 
Secretaries to each member of the Society, such notice to contain a 
copy of the requisition, and no business but that of which notice is thus 
given shall be transacted at such special meeting. 

17. — Members shall have the right of suggesting to the Council any 
books to be purchased for the use of the Society. 

18. — All books in the possession of the Society shall be allowed to 
circulate among the members, under such regulations as the Council 
may deem necessary. 

19. — The microscopical objects and instruments in the possession of 
the Society shall be made available for the use of the members, under 
such regulations as the Council may determine ; and the books, objects, 
and instruments shall be in the custody of one of the Secretaries. 

20. — The Council shall have power to recommend to the members any 
gentleman not a member of the Society, who may have contributed 
scientific papers or otherwise benefited the Society, to be elected an 
honorary member ; such election to be by show of hands. 

21. — No alteration in the rules shall be made, except at the annual 
meeting, or at a meeting specially convened for the purpose, and then 
by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present, of 
which latter meeting, fourteen days' notice shall be given, and in either 
case notice of the alterations proposed must be given at the previous 
meeting, and also inserted in the circulars sent to the members. 



31 



£t6f of {Jttemfiers. 

Members are particularly requested to notify any change in their 
address to the Hon. Secretaries, 82, Shooters Hill Road, 
Blackheath, S.E. 



NOTE. — Members against whose names an asterisk is placed were Members 
either of the West Kent Natural History and Microscopical Society 
or of the Blackheath Photographic Society, in 1863, at the time of 
the amalgamation of these Societies, the Society as at present 
constituted having been formed upon such amalgamation. A date 
against the name of a member shows the date of his election. 



gonorarg (JVlemfterg. 

*Bossey, F., M.D., Oxford Terrace, Red Hill, Surrey. 

*Collingwood, Dr. C, M.A., B.M. (Oxon), M.R.C.P., F.L.S., &c, 
69, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

1896 Dallinger, Rev. W. H., D.D., D.C.L., LL.D, F.R.S, F.L.S., &c, 

Ingleside, 38, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 

*Jones, Sydney, 18, Portland Place, W. 

fetfe (Jttemfiere. 

1865 Avebury, Lord, F.R.S., &c, High Elms, Farnborough, R.S.O., 
Kent. 

* Dawson, W. G., Plumstead Common. 

1870 Dewick, Rev. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., 26, Oxford Square, 
Hyde Park, W. 

1876 Donaldson, T. O., M. Inst. C.E., 49, Lee Terrace, Blackheath. 

( Vice-President.) 

1886 Green, Joseph F., West Lodge, Eliot Vale, Blackheath. 

1878 Jones, Herbert, F.L.S., F.S.A., 42, Shooters Hill Road, Black- 
heath. {Hon. Treasurer.) 

1876 Knill, Alderman Sir John, Bart., South Vale House, Blackheath. 

1882 Smith, Frederick W., "Hollywood," 63, Lewisham Hill, Black- 
heath. 



32 



©rbtnarp QUemfier0 + 

1882 Adams, Harold J., M.A., F.R.A.S., St. John's, Cedars Road, 

Beckenham. ( Vice-President.) 

1892 Adkin, R., " Wellfield," Lingards Road, Lewisham. 

1883 Ballance, A. W., Park Lodge, Blackheath Park, S.E. 

1897 Bennett, C. J., The " Haven," 98, Palace Road, Tulse Hill, S.W. 

1897 Bennett, E. F. T., " Rugby Cottage," 4, Upper Park Place, 
Blackheath Park. 

1867 Billinghurst, H. F., F.S.S., 35, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

( Vice-President.) 

1900 Billinghurst, W. B., B.A., 35, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

{Council.) 

1897 Blakesley, Thomas H., M.A., C.E., 3, Eliot Hill, Blackheath. 
1902 Burman, W. H., " St. Margaret's," Eltham. 
1897 Butcher, W. F., F.C.S., 4, Eliot Vale, Blackheath. 
T901 Cooney, Arthur Edward, 45, London Street, Greenwich. 
1890 Cox, F. J., " Lustleigh," Dorville Road, Lee. 

1875 Deed, Alfred, " Heathfield," Priory Lane, Blackheath. {Council.) 
1866 Dewick, J., 59, Clarendon Road, Lewisham. 

1890 Dolling-Smith, H., 18, Lauderdale Mansions, Maida Vale. 

1892 Draper, Geo., F.R.G.S., 82, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. 

{President.) 

1902 Draper, Lewis B., 82, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. (Hon. 

Secretary.) 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.R.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 15, St. Germans 

Place, Blackheath. {Council.) 

1901 Fountain, Frederic, 44, Crooms Hill, Greenwich. 
1897 Gover, A. S., 10, Lee Park, Blackheath. 

1897 Gover, W. H., 12, Lee Park, Blackheath. {Council.) 
*Groves, William, Grove House, Shortlands, Kent. 

1876 Hainworth, H., F.R.H.S., " Kirton," 54, St. John's Park, Black- 

heath. {Hon. Secretary.) 

1897 Hilton, John, 30, Budge Row, London, E.C. 

1903 Hopper, H. R., 114, High Road, Lee. 

1887 Jones, Arthur Goddard, 3, Talbot Place, Blackheath. 
1899 Kerr, R., F.G.S., 13, Ormiston Road, Blackheath. 

1896 Kidd, Walter, M.D., F.Z.S., 12, Montpelier Row, Blackheath. 

( Vice-President .) 

1886 Kiddle, R. N., L.D.S. Eng., 46, Lee Terrace, Blackheath. 

{Council.) 

1871 Low, Edwin, 3, Eliot Park, Blackheath. 

1901 Low, V. H., 34, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

1902 Maltass, A. E., 82, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. 

1899 May, Morgan, 60, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. {Council.) 



33 



1896 McDougall, Jas. T., " Dunolly," Morden Road, Blackheath. 

1873 McLachlan, Robert, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, "West View," 
23, Clarendon Road, Lewisham. {Council.) 

*Purvis, Prior, M.D., 5, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 

1897 Ryley, Thomas, 7, Park Place, Blackheath Park. 
1887 Saunders, H. S., 4, Coleman Street, E.C. 

1893 Saunders, M. L., 13, Blessington Road, Lee. 

1872 Smith, W. Johnson, F.R.C.S., Seamen's Hospital, Greenwich. 

1899 Soames, Rev. Werner H. K., M.A., " Fernleigh," Westcombe 
Park Road, Blackheath. 

1901 Stone, Arthur, B.A., 3, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 

1899 Stone, Charles, 6, Vanbrugh Terrace, Blackheath. 

1883 Stone, Edward, F.S.A., 3, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 

1882 Stone, John M., M.A., 5, St. Germans Place, Blackheath. 

{Council.) 

1896 Walker, G. M., 35, Bennett Park, Blackheath. 

1895 Weare, Joseph C, 77, St. John's Park, Blackheath. {Council.) 

1877 Webster, William, F.C.S., 50, Lee Park, Blackheath. {Council.) 

*Wire, Travers B., 54, Crooms Hill, Greenwich. {CoiDicil.) 

1891 Witherby, Harry F., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., The Royal Societies' 
Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. {Council.) 

1903 W. J. Wolfsberger, 29, Manor Park, Lee, S.E. 

1884 Wrigley, P. T., M.A., " Shrublands," Kew, Surrey. {Council.) 




PRESENTED 
2 JUN.1904 



Meetings of tbe Societp, 



FOR THE SESSION 1903-4. 




Wednesday, March ... .'.*. 25th, 

„ April 22nd 

„ May 27th 

„ October 28th 

„ November ... 25th 

„ December ... 9th 

ff January ... 27th, 

„ February ... 24th 




The Chair is taken at Eight o'clock. 



1903. 



1904. 

„ (Annual) 



THE MEETINGS ARE HELD IN THE HALL OF THE 
MISSION SCHOOL, BLACKHEATH.